antwerp4 Something Totally Random


Poster 1: Stuttering and multilingualism: practical implications
Author: Aerts, G. (Artevelde University College, Belgium)
Nowadays, more and more children are raised in a multilingual environment. Hence, in our daily practice, we are confronted with more multilingual children (and adults) who also stutter. In recent years, there has been a lot of research on both stuttering and multilingualism separately, but there have been few studies on the combination of both topics. Or as Mamdoh & Goomah (2015) would say: "Data on bilingualism and stuttering are scanty".
This poster will try to give an overview of recent literature on the prevalence of stuttering in multilingual children, will discuss flaws within recent research and the possible influence of multilingualism within the development of stuttering. It will also give a hint of practical implications, both for assessment and intervention and will give suggestions for further research.

Poster 2: The perception of stuttering in Greek society
Author: Martinis, Y. (Proseggisi, Greece)
The stereotypical perception of stuttering as a phenomenon and the personality characteristics of people who stutter can be seen widespread during social interaction. The stereotypical perception exists independent from culture, place, occupation, educational level or even age. A negative social stance towards stuttering can cause social, educational, financial obstacles in the life of people who stutter.
Through this research we attempt to gain access to the perception of stuttering by concentrating our efforts in domains such as: the basic knowledge over stuttering phenomenon, the believed way a person who stutters is expected to react to his stutter, the possible impact stuttering might have in everyday communication and the impact stuttering is believed it can have in a speaker's quality of life.
For our purpose, we constructed a questionnaire consisted of 71 items, divided into 3 parts: Part A, Part B (5 sections) and Part C. 
The results reveal partly the social expectations for people who stutter in Greece and also the impact that this questionnaire might have in modifying the initial perception of stuttering though the repetitive use of the introductory items in the end of the questionnaire.

Poster 3: Stuttering and web-radio. A mantenance programme for MIDA-SP.
Author: Del Gado, F., Capparelli, E., Venuti, B., & Tomaiuoli, D. (C.R.C. Balbuzie S.R.L., Università degli studi "La sapienza", Università degli studi "Tor Vergata", Italy)
The effectiveness of a stuttering treatment can be primarily evaluated on the basis of the clients' ability to transfer in their everyday life what they learned during therapy. In fact, maintenance is often considered as the main drawback of the program with a client.
The purpose of this work is to continue a research started in 2015 the research on the effectiveness of speaking radio for the maintenance of post-MIDA SP treatment outcomes by pursuing the following objectives: a) increase the study sample b) collect data at 12 months after the end of treatment.
The study has been conducted on a sample of 40 people who stutter. They were from 12 to 19 years old, and had all been treated at the CRC Balbuzie with the MIDA-SP.  They all are assessed according to the MIDA-SP classification considering both overt and covert aspects.
A control group (which had undergone the same treatment) has started a traditional maintenance program in parallel. Data gathered during four tests administrations. By the effect of this integrated work, average scores collected twelve months after the end of the treatment were better.  

Poster 4: The Finnish translation and a psychometric evaluation of the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for School-Aged Children
Author: Yli-Savola, A. (University of Turku, Finland)
The Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for School-Aged Children (OASES-S) is a comprehensive assessment tool of children who stutter. The purpose of the project is to translate and adapt the OASES-S to Finnish language and culture, and to test the validity and reliability of the test to have the norms for the Finnish version of the OASES-S.
The assessment scales were translated to Finnish using a forward/backward translation process. School-aged children who stutter were asked to fulfill the questionnaires. The results are compared with the English version of the OASES-S.
In this presentation we report the preliminary results of the validity and reliability of the Finnish version of the OASES-S.

Poster 5: The ‘word cloud machine'
Author: Polfliet, K. (Logos, Belgium)
The ‘word cloud machine' (woordenwolkjesmachine) is a colourful picture book that teaches children about stuttering. The main character in the book is a 7-year old boy, Kamiel, who noticed that his words sometimes sound a bit different from other people's words. They even sound a bit broken. It upsets Kamiel that his words sound like that. One evening when he drifts to sleep, he comes upon a huge yellow machine in a dream. Running around and on the machine, are two funny boys who tell him that it's a ‘speech-machine'. The machine starts making little word clouds and as the clouds leave the machine, Kamiel starts to speak. What was a word cloud just moments before is now a sentence that Kamiel says! But then the machine malfunctions and the words leave the machine in a jumble. Just like that Kamiel's words are broken again. The two boys reassure Kamiel that his words aren't broken, they've become magic charms. The boys explain all about these magic charms and we learn that these charms are actually the three kinds of stutters: repetitions, prolongations or blocks. He learns that these magic charms are nothing to worry about. Now that he's learned all about the machine, Kamiel isn't afraid or sad about his stutters anymore. Even more so, he's proud because he can do magical things.

Poster 6: Lexipontix: An intervention programme that addresses the overall stuttering experience
Author: Marousos, D., & Fourlas, G. (Eu-Legein Centre, ΚΕΘΤ-Stuttering Research and Therapy Centre, Greece)
Lexipontix is a structured therapy programme for school age CWS. It is based on theoretical principles and clinical practices of CBT, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), Fluency Shaping and Stuttering Modification Therapy approaches (Fourlas & Marousos, 2015).
Lexipontix programme runs for 13 sessions. The first 5-sessions constitute the core structure of the programme. The core structure is followed by a 7-session modular structure, tailored to individual needs. The 13th session follows a consolidation period that lasts for 1 month.
Clinical decisions are driven by a comprehensive assessment process based on the ICF framework (WHO, 2001) as the therapy programme aims to address the overall stuttering experience of the child. Parents and child are engaged in therapy as equal partners. Therapy is built on a theme, it is fun, it makes sense and it is about exploring and understanding the stuttering experience, finding alternative ways of management and producing meaningful changes. A SFBT standpoint in the clinical application of the programme facilitates clients, moving towards their expectations.
The purpose of this poster is to present the structure and the content of the programme in relation to its theoretical rational, its clinical tools and the expected outcomes.

Poster 7: Applying Solution Focused Brief Therapy into Stuttering Therapy. A clinical example.
Author: Fourlas, G. (ΚΕΘΤ-Stuttering Research and Therapy Centre, Greece)
Introduction: Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) shifts focus of therapy from the problem to the solution. It focusses on the times when a problem is less severe or even absent and brings these small successes into awareness. It explores in detail what is already contributing to those moments of success and it looks in resources rather than deficits. SFBT sees the person as being more than his problem, it explores in detail the preferred future and treats clients as the experts in all aspects of their lives (George, Iveson & Ratner, 1999). Even the most chronic difficulties such as stuttering, have periods or times when they do not occur or are less intense. There are also times when the Person Who Stutters (PWS) is dealing with the moment of stuttering successfully.
Methods: On the above context we explore the use of SFBT into stuttering therapy and discuss a clinical example of an adult who stutters presenting the structure of SFBT sessions and the corresponding therapeutic dialogues.
Discussion: The clinical example highlights the use of SFBT in stuttering therapy.

Poster 8: Impact of stuttering in Greek-speaking preschoolers and their parents: Preliminary findings.
Author: Ntourou, K., Fourlas, G., Marousos, D., Paphiti, M. (University of Oklahoma, USA, Eu-Legein Centre, ΚΕΘΤ-Stuttering Research and Therapy Centre, Greece, Turku University, Finland)
This study compared maternal and paternal perceptions of the impact of stuttering on their child and them, assessed the role of different factors on these perceptions, and evaluated the agreement between children's attitude towards communication and parents' rating of the impact of stuttering on them.
Fifty six Greek-speaking CWS were administered the KiddyCAT and their parents completed the Palin PRS.Mothers reported greater impact of stuttering on their child (p = .05) and greater stuttering severity and parental concern (p = .002). Ratings of the impact of stuttering on the child were significantly correlated with time since stuttering onset controlled for age (mother: r = .24, p = .05; father: r = .31, p = .02). Mothers of CWS with concomitant speech-language problems reported reduced knowledge about stuttering and confidence in managing it than mothers of CWS without concomitant problems (p = .02). KiddyCAT scores were significantly correlated with maternal reports of the impact of stuttering on the child (r = -.25, p = .03).
Results highlight the importance of involving both parents in the assessment process and the role that certain factors play in parents' perceived impact of stuttering on their child and them.

Poster 9: ECSF Therapists and Portuguese Stuttering Association: a complementary relationship
Author: Caldas, J., Carmona, J., Costa, D.N., Germano, H., Largo, B., Margarido, E., Morgado, M.J., Rocha, M., Santos, A.R. & Valente, R. (Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico do Porto; Escola Superior de Saúde do Alcoitão; PIN - Centro de Desenvolvimento, Paço de Arcos; Center for Social Studies - Research Group on Science Ecomony and Society - University of Coimbra; Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra; Centro de Medicina Física e Reabilitação do Sul; Escola Superior de Saúde da Universidade de Aveiro & Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS.UA), Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Portugal)
Introduction: The Portuguese Stuttering Association (PSA) was created in 2005. One of its missions is the organization of seminars, conferences and other dialogical spaces where PWS can share their experience along with SLT's. The SLT's who underwent the European Clinical Specialization in Fluency disorders, in 2015 took on a more active role within the association. With this poster presentation we aim to expose the ways in which the PWS, SLTs and ECSF therapists can benefit from each other's knowledge, experience and enlighten the possibility for the replication of this relationship in other countries.
Methodology: A retrospective study from 2015 until 2017 on the subjects explored in the seminars.
Results: The subjects explored include the PWS's perspective and the scientific knowledge from the therapist: job interviews, daily challenges, tease and bullying, the importance of self-help groups, oral presentations, early intervention, risk factors and etiology, tips for parents and teachers.
Conclusion and Discussion: This relationship has developed a holistic perspective: for the PWS and for the SLT's, challenged the speech therapists to move from the therapy room to the society and to have the responsibility of sharing accurate knowledge about stuttering to the community of PWS and the general public.


Poster 10: Overview of stuttering management in Nigeria
Author: Ademola, G. (Speech Therapy Department. National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Nigeria)
This is highlight of the structure of stuttering intervention in Nigeria. Although there is no formalized structure of stuttering intervention, the speech therapy Department of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, is blazing a trail in the management of stuttering in Nigeria.
The Sphere of coverage of this hospital stretches across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria from North to South, East and West. Although there are three Orthopaedic Hopitals in Nigeria, this is the only one that has a speech therapy Department.
There is greater awareness about stuttering and more people are in interested in getting help for their children


Poster 11: Changing attitudes toward stuttering among Polish teachers and university students
Author: Węsierska, K., St. Louis, K. O., & Polewczyk, I. (Centrum Logopedyczne Katowice, University of Silesia, Poland, West Virginia University, USA)
The present study was conducted as a part of the IPATHA (International Project on Attitudes Toward Human Attributes) initiative (St. Louis, 2011). Research on attitudes towards stuttering shows that negative stereotypes related to dysfluency still exist. Studies have shown that not only the general public, but also people of authority such as teachers hold similar negative stereotypes regarding stuttering (Arnold et al., 2015; Lass et al., 1992; Silverman & Marik, 1993, St. Louis, 2015). Negative opinions about stuttering that are shared or demonstrated by teachers can have a powerful impact on the interactions of students with peers who stutter in schools as well as their attitudes toward others who stutter during later academic careers or in social life. In Poland, the public displayed attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter that were generally similar or less positive in comparison with other samples around the world from the POSHA-S database (Przepiórka et al., 2013; Błachnio et al., 2015; Węsierska, St. Louis, 2015). Teachers' negative beliefs and reactions regarding stuttering could have a detrimental impact on their students' attitudes toward stuttering and later, attitudes of the general public.
In the current quasi-experimental design study in Poland, the authors explored the effects of an educational course on stuttering for two groups of university students and the effects of an educational workshop for public pre/school teachers on changing attitudes toward stuttering. Accordingly, 59 Polish teachers and 27 university students were introduced to a workshop or coursework related to improving stuttering attitudes. Comparative results are presented.

Poster 12: Behavior Assessment Battery: Normative investigation among Polish adults who do and do not stut

Author: Węsierska, K., Vanryckeghem, M., Danielowska, M., Faściszewska, M., Krawczyk, A., & Tuchowska, J. (University of Silesia, Centrum Logopedyczne Katowice,  Interneuron Private Practice Skawina, University of Gdańsk, Jagiellonian University, Poland,  University of Central Florida, USA)
When assessing individuals who stutter, counting dysfluent behaviors should not be the sole method of assessment. Counting dysfluent behaviors proves to be an unreliable assessment method because, in part, research findings have shown that there is considerable lack of inter and intra-reliability when counting stutters. Increasingly, clinicians assessing people who stutter (PWS) are supplementing uni-dimensional clinical observation with a more multi-dimensional approach. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB) (Brutten & Vanryckeghem, 2003a,b, 2007; Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2018) is an evidence-based approach, norm-referenced, self-report tool that allows for multi-dimensional diagnostic and therapeutic decision making for PWS. The BAB provides a set of inter-related, standardized test procedures for discriminating children and adults who stutter from those whose dysfluencies are a result of other disorders that disrupt fluency as well as  from those whose speech interruptions and associated behaviors are normal rather than clinically significant. The data gathered reveal affective, behavioral, and cognitive components related to speech and serve as clinically informing cross-checks on the client's responses to the same stimuli.
Since there was no standardized Polish diagnostic tool that implemented a multi-dimensional assessment approach for the adult PWS, thus, the BAB was adopted for Poland and a study with the Polish version of the BAB tests was undertaken.
In order to establish the BAB's reliability and validity for Poland, the aim of the present study was to obtain normative and comparative data for the Polish population of adult PWS (N=123) and PWNS (N=151) for the all four BAB subtests: the SSC-ER, SSC-SD, BigCAT, and BCL.

Poster 13: The role of narratives in the development of stuttering as a problem
Author: O'Dwyer, M., Walsh, I. P., Leahy, M. (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland)
Introduction: Narratives are how people make sense of experiences and give meaning to their lives (Bruner, 1990).  Use of narrative therapy (White, 2007) with people who stutter to facilitate the development of preferred stories (as opposed to problem based stories) has been documented (Logan, 2013 Ryan, O'Dwyer & Leahy, 2015).  The purpose of this research is to explore the role of narratives in the development of stuttering as a problem for people who stutter.  This research seeks to identify the factors which influence the development of these narratives as well as describing the contents of the narratives.
Method: Narratives from six men who stutter were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the "Listening Guide" (Brown and Gilligan, 1992).  This is a Voice Centred Relational Method.
Results: Findings indicate interaction between participants' narratives about stuttering and their wider self-narratives with impact on different aspects of self-development.  A number of influences on the development of the narratives were identified including relationships, thoughts and feelings and the dominant stories about stuttering in relevant social structures.  An individual's consciousness of these influences was found to be integral to change in their narratives.
Discussion: The findings point to the importance of considering the environment, including significant relationships and social structures, in our understanding of stuttering.  They also highlight connections between different aspects of current knowledge about stuttering, for example, between genetics, neurology and temperament.  This research centres the voices of the people who stutter who participated in the study and found that listening in this way led to insights which fit well with current research on the aetiology of stuttering.  These insights focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal processes which can influence the development of stuttering or pave the way to stuttering becoming less problematic for the person who stutters.

Poster 14: Free to Stutter... Free to Speak: Programme participants' feedback regarding treatment agents
Author: O'Dwyer, M. & Ryan, F. (Health Service Executive, Ireland)
Introduction: Free to Stutter... Free to Speak (FTS) is an intensive treatment programme for adults who stutter which was developed and is facilitated by two ECSF graduates. The programme was first held in 2009 when 3 other fellow ECSF students also participated as facilitators. Since then, the intensive programme has been held on 8 occasions.  The programme has 4 main components: Mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2013), Avoidance Reduction Therapy (Sheehan, 1970), Stuttering Modification Therapy (Van Riper, 1973) and Narrative Therapy (Epston and White, 1990).  Fiona Ryan has researched the outcomes of narrative therapy while Mary O'Dwyer has researched the application of narrative theory to narratives about stuttering. The feedback from FTS participants presented in this poster complements Mary's and Fiona's research as it focuses on the treatment agents including narrative therapy which clients who attended FTS identified as the ones that worked or did not work for them.
Method: Participants of the FTS programme were invited to take part in an on-line survey and/or face to face discussion group so as to identify the programme components and treatment agents which they found beneficial or otherwise.
Results: Still being compiled at time of submitting abstract - will update abstract at later stage.


Poster 15: Stories from the Other Side: Outcomes from Narrative Therapy for people who stutter
Author: Ryan, F., Smith, M. M., Leahy, M. (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland)
Stuttering is a disorder of speech encompassing motor speech, emotional and cognitive factors, impacting on the life and experiences of a person who stutters in an unprecedented way. It is characterised by overt behaviours such as involuntary blocks in speech; repetitions; prolongations and covert or unobservable behaviours that include a feeling of loss of control. Research highlights however (Koedoot, Bouwmans, Franken, & Stolk, 2011), that it is the covert aspects, the subtle cognitive and affective layers that lie beneath the surface of stuttering (Manning, 2010) that are often of greater significance to the speaker than the more obvious overt features. Narrative Therapy has its origins in social constructionism that recognises that people construct their lives and identities socially and culturally, through language, discourse and communication (Speedy, 2008; White & Epston, 1990). It has been used to address problem-saturated narratives that dominate the lives of people encouraging a sense of agency as they rewrite and reauthor their story to one that fits with their hopes, values and dreams. There is currently limited published research detailing the outcomes from Narrative Therapy. Narrative therapy was identified as a possible means of addressing the impact of stuttering on the person who stutters and was introduced as a core component of the intervention programme Free to stutter...Free to Speak (Leahy, O' Dwyer & Ryan, 2012; Ryan, O'Dwyer & Leahy, 2015). Data was collected from 11 participants of the Free to Stutter Free to Speak programme over a 3-year period and as part of a composite analysis the Narrative Therapy sessions were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The standardised assessments administered as part of the programme are included in this analysis as are the narrative documents, letters, emails and narrative maps.
Five superordinate themes emerge from the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. These themes include the Impact of stuttering, Hope, Identity, Will and Unique Outcomes, Outcomes emerge that highlight the importance of addressing the impact of stuttering, forging connections with others and actions that increase participation in everyday life leading to an increased sense of ‘wellness'.

Poster 16: Phonological Abilities in Children who Stutter
Author: Eggers, K., Fleerackers, J., Van Bedaf, E., & Van Everbroeck, H. (Thomas More University College, Private SLT practices, Belgium, Turku University, Finland).
Phonological abilities refer to the sensitivity for and the ability to use the elementary auditory features of spoken language (de Jong & van der Leij, 1999); examples are rhyming, repeating pseudowords, ... Wagner and Torgesen (1987) make a distinction between 3 types of phonological abilities, namely phonological awareness, i.e., the sensitivity for constituting elements in words, phonological decoding, i.e., using the phonological codes in the long term memory, and phonetic recoding to maintain information in the working memory.
Studies have shown impairments in and/or a higher vulnerability of the phonological abilities in persons who stutter (e.g., Anderson, 2005; Hakim & Ratner, 2004; Jones, Fox, Jacewicz, 2012; Sasikeran, 2014) although some of the findings are unequivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Dutch-speaking children who stutter (CWS) differ in phonological abilities from nonstuttering children. Therefore 23 CWS (5;00-6;02y) were matched on age and gender with 23 children free from speech, language and hearing disorders. The test battery consisted, among others, of a nonword repetition task, a rhyming task, and an alliteration task. Results are interpreted within existing frameworks of linguistic factors and developmental stuttering. 

Poster 17: Raising Stuttering Awareness in the Czech Republic
Author: Dezort, J. (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
The poster will introduce the projects and work that I have been involved in since graduating from the ECSF course in July 2016. Firstly, I will describe how my work has changed during the sessions with PWS and how my clients perceive the changes that I have introduced in therapy. One of the most important aspects is the shift in thinking which could be described as critical thinking and critical introspection of my own therapy processes. This leads to their gradual change and to the improvement of my skills which shows in direct work with my clients.  Next, I will introduce the international projects I have been involved in, mainly concerning the localisation of tests for PWS into Czech. Then I will present my sessions for students and SLTs where I explain the importance of bringing new ideas and knowledge to the therapy of PWS in the Czech Republic. Finally, I will also present my website dedicated to raising awareness about stuttering in the Czech Republic.

Poster 18: Changes in speech-associated attitude in preschool CWS treated through the Lidcombe program or PCI: a comparative study
Author: Chiari, F., & Bernardini, S. (Private practice Venice, ABC Balbuzie Padua, Italy)
Stuttering is considered as a complex and variable disorder (Maguire et ali., 2012). It is important to consider the level of severity of stuttering during the evaluation and treatment of children who stutter (CWS), but it is also necessary to assess the speech-associated attitude in preschool and kindergarten CWS (Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007). This study aims to compare the speech-associated attitude in preschool CWS and its changes by an assessment before and after the administration of the Lidcombe Program (LP)or the Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Our purpose was to determine whether by the end of the treatment the speech-associated attitude resulted unchanged (with respect to what had emerged during the assessment phase) or if one of the two kinds of approaches determined a modification of the same, thus enabling a clearer prognostic hypothesis. Moreover, we wanted to assess whether there was a real decrease in the severity level of the disorder.
10 preschool and kindergarten children, aged between 3.8 and 5.6 years old, were assessed through: 1) Communication Attitude Test for Preschoolers and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter - KiddyCAT to assess the speech-associated attitude; 2) Stuttering Severity Intrument-4 -SSI-4, to evaluate the stuttering severity level. The 10 CWS were randomly divided into 2 groups of 5 to undergo one of the two one-year treatment programmes. Six and 12 months after the beginning of the treatment, the SSI-4 and the KiddyCAT was re-administered.
The data obtained from the KiddyCAT showed a very different speech-associated attitude performance in the two groups: all subjects followed with the PCIT had a positive a speech-related attitude result, whereas only one child treated with the LP showed a positive trend with regard to the communication attitude. Moreover, the data provided by the administration of the SSI-4 showed a greater decrease of the severity level of stuttering in the PCI group compared to the LP group. In this study the CWS under the PCIT had a better outcome after 12 months of treatment compared to the CWS children treated with LP.

Poster 19: Avoidance-reduction therapy for adults who stutter: updating theory for practical therapy today
Author: Linklater, J., Franklin, S., & McCurtin, A. (Independent Speech and Language Therapist, Ireland)
Building on the research of Sheehan (1970, 1975) and Sheehan, Shanks and Mereu (2005), this poster aims to provide participants with a fresh evidence-based perspective on avoidance-reduction therapy for clients who stutter. Avoidance-reduction therapy is based on an underlying acceptance of stuttering which forms a foundation for positive change. As a result of this increased acceptance, stuttering becomes easier (characterised by less struggle). Increased fluency is not a direct focus of avoidance-reduction therapy; fluency increases indirectly as a by-product of underlying acceptance. To this end, the therapy approach presented in this poster also draws on the work of Carl Rogers and his "curious paradox" of change (Rogers, 1961). The poster reflects on the findings of 10-years of clinical research which show reductions in severity in terms of self-report data (WASSP) for up to 23 clients at 24 months. Further papers are in preparation showing data from OASES and SSI-3.

Poster 20: Acting in Unspoken: changing actors' attitudes to stammering
Author: Linklater, J., Stewart, T., & Railton, P. (Independent Speech and Language Therapist, Ireland)
"Unspoken" is a play written by Yorkshire playwright, Neil Rathmell, with Dr Trudy Stewart (retired consultant speech and language therapist). The play depicted a range of typical situations experienced by a young adult who stammers. It premiered in England in July 2017 at Carriageworks Theatre, Leeds, UK. Members of an amateur group called Leeds Arts Centre performed the play and at the beginning of the rehearsal process had little or no knowledge of stammering prior to their theatrical involvement. The stammering community were involved early in the rehearsal process and a PWS directly coached the main character with regard to the depiction of his stammer. It was decided to assess the effect of the rehearsal process and engagement with the stammering community on the actors' attitudes to stammering. After public performances, a focus group type interview was carried out with the actors by an independent interviewer (JL) to ascertain the effect on the actors' perceptions and attitudes towards stammering. This poster describes a number of key outcomes for the group of amateur performers. Some individuals reported a clearer understanding of how to respond to a person while he/she was stammering. In addition, the group had adopted an advocacy role in response to the public understanding of stammering and, in some cases, the issue of disability in society. This experiment in awareness raising in the context of theatre suggests that individuals and groups can be moved from beyond simply understanding stammering toward a greater role as advocates. Further analysis on this group of actors, the audience responses and those of the director are planned for the future.